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【Hesperetin】 Main Citrus Flavonoids with Antidiabetic Effects
】】 Main Citrus Flavonoids with Antidiabetic Effects
】 ((S) -2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2- (3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) -4-benzopyran), an important citrus flavonoid and aglycone form of hesperidin, is a bitter compound mainly found in bitter oranges and lemons. It is interesting to note that 【Hesperidin
】 has a higher bioavailability compared to hesperidin due to the rutinoside moiety attached to the flavonoid, and this seems to contribute to its superior anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. 【Hesperidin
】 is widely studied in several pathological conditions and exhibits neuroprotective effects, anticancer properties, anti-neuroinflammatory potential, antioxidant effects, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others.
Zareei, Boojar, and Amanlou investigated and evaluated the effect of 【Hesperidin
】 on the AST and ALT enzymes in the liver of rats and concluded that 【Hesperidin
】 exclusively inhibited ALT and AST activities in diabetes-induced rats. Therefore, their study hypothesized that 【Hesperidin
】 may be a potential compound for designing safe and effective drugs for the management of increased ALT- and AST-related disorders, which are especially found in diabetes. Furthermore, Revathy, Subramani, Sheik Abdullah, and Udaiyar showed that 【Hesperidin
】 exhibited an antihyperglycemic effect by reducing blood glucose and enhancing plasma insulin and glycogen levels in an animal model of STZ-induced diabetes. 【Hesperidin
】 treatment ameliorated vascular congestion and mononuclear cellular infiltration, and improved hepatic architecture, which was damaged by profound hyperglycemia. 【Hesperidin
】 also alleviated the abnormality caused by hyperglycemia in pancreatic β-cells, inducing a notable extension of islets, improved staining in pancreatic β-cells, and boosting the number of insulin immune-positive cells of the islets. It also recovered the diabetes-induced damaged kidney tissue by reducing marked tubular necrosis, improving the architecture of the glomerulus and renal cortex, and attenuating interstitial inflammation in rat renal tissues.
Samie, Sedaghat, Baluchnejadmojarad, and Roghani assessed the beneficial effect of 【Hesperidin
】 on diabetes-associated testicular injury in diabetic rats. Like other bioflavonoids, 【Hesperidin
】 was also able to prevent body weight loss, DNA fragmentation, and testicular oxidative stress and/or apoptosis; increase serum testosterone levels; reduce serum glucose, MDA, ROS, and protein carbonyl levels; and prevent caspase 3 activity in diabetic animals. 【Hesperidin
】 treatment also showed important antioxidant effects by increasing glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) levels, besides improving the activities of enzymes such as SOD, CAT, and GPx. Finally, 【Hesperidin
】 showed positive effects on testicular function and improved sperm counts, motility, and viability, as well as reducing inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-17) and preventing damage to the seminiferous tubules in diabetic rats.
Overall, 【Hesperidin】 exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in diabetes-mediated metabolic disorders. These results suggest that 【Hesperidin】 specifically modulates biochemical parameters linked to liver enzymes, in addition to protecting the vital organs affected by the deleterious effects of profound hyperglycemia. Thus, further clinical trials should be carried out to verify 【Hesperidin】 as an important potential treatment against diabetes and related metabolic complications.
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