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Hesperidin is a bioflavonoid, with high concentration in citrus fruits. In addition to its well-known benefits for cardiovascular function, type II diabetes, and anti-inflammation, recent studies have demonstrated multiple benefits of hesperidin for cutaneous functions, including wound healing, UV protection, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiskin cancer, and skin lightening. In addition, hesperidin enhances epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis in both normal young and aged skin. The mechanisms by which hesperidin benefits cutaneous functions are attributable to its antioxidant properties, inhibition of MAPK-dependent signaling pathways, and stimulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and lipid production. Because of its low cost, wide availability, and superior safety, hesperidin could prove useful for the management of a variety of cutaneous conditions.
In humans, no organ has attracted as much attention as the skin does, because of both cosmetic and medical concerns. For cosmetic concerns, average daily costs of facial care for an American woman can be as much as $8.00 . In 2017, the sale value of skin care products exceeds $26 billion per year in China alone . Recent studies showed that topical applications of certain skin care products exert a variety of benefits for both chronic and photoaged skin, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammation [3–7]. Because use of skin care products has become increasingly popular, much work has been focused on the identification of ingredients with multiple benefits on the skin in the development of skin care products.
Because skin suffers from as many diseases as any other organ in the body, proper management of cutaneous conditions is of substantial importance. Over a lifetime, everyone will eventually suffer from some cutaneous problems, because the skin interfaces with the environment, making it more vulnerable to external physical, chemical, and microbial stress. In addition to their psychosocial impact and the quality of life for affected patients and their families, certain chronic cutaneous disorders can also contribute to the development of other systemic diseases. For example, both psoriasis and eczematous dermatitis increase circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines [8–10], which appear to play a pathogenic role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type II diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease [11–14]. Because of its vast size, even subclinical inflammation in the skin can dramatically increase serum cytokine levels, which could be linked to some of these age-associated disorders [12, 15]. Due to the complexity of cutaneous functions and the potential risk of developing multiple disorders in the skin, ingredients that exert multiple benefits to the skin are much desirable. In search for these ingredients, hesperidin would appear to be a potential candidate. Studies have demonstrated that both topical and systemic administrations of hesperidin can benefit a variety of cutaneous functions in both normal and diseased skin. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the benefits of hesperidin for cutaneous functions.
Hesperidin was first isolated from the inner portion of orange peels in 1828. Hesperidin together with other similar bioflavonoids was formerly called “vitamin P” (reviewed in ). Hesperidin is abundant in citrus fruits, including lemon, orange, lime, and grapefruit. The content of hesperidin in citrus fruits varies greatly with species, part of the fruit itself, geographic sites of cultivation, and processing procedures (Table 1) [17–22]. For example, hesperidin content in fresh Satsuma pulp is 73 mg per kilogram and 157 mg per kilogram in fresh peel . Generally, hesperidin content is higher in citrus peel than in the other parts of the citrus fruits. But lemon seeds contain more hesperidin than peel by methanol extraction . Hand-squeezed Florida orange juice contains 335–351mg hesperidin per litter while Israel Ortanique citrus juice contains 273–287 mg per litter . Juice from pigmented citrus contains more hesperidin than that from nonpigmented citrus . It is likely that immature citrus may contain more hesperidin than ripen citrus does . Pasteurization with heat did not decrease hesperidin content in citrus juice at least stored at 4°C for up to 12 days. Instead, hesperidin content increases following pasteurization of citrus juice at 90°C for 20 seconds . Hesperidin content ranges from 555 to 761 mg per litter in single-strength juice and from 470 to 614 mg per litter in concentrated juice, suggesting that processing procedure affects hesperidin content in citrus juice . In addition to citrus fruits, peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) also contains hesperidin, whose content increases following UVB irradiation . Methanol extract of Porphyra dentata, a red edible seaweed, contains 5% hesperidin .
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