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【Hesperidin】Main Citrus Flavonoids with Antidiabetic Effects



Hesperidin】】Main Citrus Flavonoids with Antidiabetic Effects

Hesperidin】 is a flavanone glycoside commonly found in citrus fruits such as oranges, tangerines, lemons, and grapefruits, and is one of the most important non-essential nutrients for human beings. Its name originated from the word “hesperidium”, which denotes fruits derived from citrus trees. The consumption of 【Hesperidin】 appears to influence blood pressure and improve antioxidant status in humans. This citrus flavanone is a widely used dietary supplement, alone or in combination with other bioflavonoids, for the treatment or prevention of disturbances in the vascular system (reducing capillary permeability) and as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or anticarcinogenic herbal medicine. The majority of the medicinal properties of this bioflavonoid have been attributed to its ability to modulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in biological systems, as demonstrated in different animal models of inflammatory reactions.

One of the most common chronic diseases that can be treated with this flavonoid is diabetes, as Akiyama et alreported. The authors used an animal model of STZ-induced diabetes to assess the effect of 【Hesperidin】 on biochemical markers, glucose-regulating enzymes, and parameters of bone loss in marginal type 1 diabetic rats. 【Hesperidin】 reduced blood glucose and serum insulin and normalized the enzymatic activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GK), and other hepatic enzymes important in glycemic control. In addition, Mahmoud et al. showed that 【Hesperidin】 treatment could attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. These results corroborate those of El-Marasy et al., who reported that the oral administration of 【Hesperidin】 reduced blood glucose, decreased levels of MDA and IL-6, and increased GSH and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels in the brains of rats with diabetes. 【Hesperidin】 also normalized the levels of monoamines in the brain, specifically, norepinephrine and dopamine, and elevated brain levels of serotonin. The results obtained were also reflected in physical and behavioral parameters, since 【Hesperidin】 reduced the immobility time of rats with diabetes in the forced swimming test.

In STZ-induced diabetic animals, Dokumacioglu et al. supported some of the previously reported data about this citrus flavonoid 【Hesperidin】 and added more important molecular findings, which showed that 【Hesperidin】 significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL C, VLDL C, and MDA levels and increased GSH concentrations but did not change HDL-C levels. Additionally, histological analysis showed that treatment with 【Hesperidin】 led to an improvement in the degenerated islet cells in diabetic rats. The study also reported a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic rats. The authors speculated that the control of weight loss in the diabetic rats treated with 【Hesperidin】 might result from the organized regulation of TNF-α and IL-6 levels in adipose tissue. Studies reported that the increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 by subcutaneous fat tissue correlates with obesity and adiposity, and such was also suggested to be associated with the origination of diabetic microvascular complications.

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